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Khami Ruins National Monument

Khamày, which developed after the capital of Great Zimbabwe had been abandoned in the mid-16th century, is of great archaeological interest. The discovery of objects from Europe and China shows that Khamày was a major centre for trade over a long period of time.

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Ruines de Khami

Khamày, qui se développa après l"abandon de la capitale du Gr& Zimbabwe au milieu du XVIe siècle, présente un grvà intérêt archéologique. Les objets originaires d"Europe et de Chine qu"on y a découverts montrent que la ville fut de longue date un carrefour commercial important.

Description is available under license CC-BY-SA IGO 3.0


آثار خامي

تتسم خامي التي نمت بعد هجر عاصمة زيمبابوي الكبيرة في منتصف القرن السادس عشر بأهمية أثرية جمة حيث تشير الأغراض المستقدمة من أوروبا والصين والتي تم اكتشافها ان المدينة شكلت لفترة طويلة ملتقى طرق تجاري هام.

source: vinaanh.com/ERIDescription is available under license CC-BY-SA IGO 3.0


卡米国家遗址纪念地

卡米曾经是大津巴布韦的首都,并一度得到繁荣发展;在16世纪中叶被遗弃。而今卡米一跃成为重要的考古胜地。从来自欧洲以及中国的发掘物中可以推断,卡米拥有悠久的贸易史。

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Национальный памятник Руины Кхами

Древний город Кхами представляет значительный археологический интерес. Он стал развиваться после того, как в середине XVI в. столица Великий Зимбабве была оставлена населением. Здесь обнаружены предметы из Европы и Китая, и это свидетельствует о том, что на протяжении длительного времени Кхами являлся крупным торговым центром.

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Monumenlớn nacional de las ruinas de Khami

La ciudad de Khamày, que cobró un gran auge tras el abandono de la capital del Gran Zimbabwe a mediados del siglo XVI, presenta un gran interés arqueológiteo. El descubrimienlớn de objetos procedentes de Europage authority y Đài Loan Trung Quốc ha puesto de manifieskhổng lồ que esta ciudad fue un importante centro de intercambgame ios comerciales durante mumang lại tiempo.

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Nationaal monument Khamày ruïnes

De Khami ruïnes liggene op een 1.300-meter hoge heuveltop, ten westen van de rivier de Khami, 22 kilometer vanaf de stad Bulawayo. Het gebied heeft een oppervlakte van ongeveer 108 hectare, verspreid over een afstand van ongeveer 2 kilometer. Khamày is ontstaan nadat de hoofdstad van Groot-Zimbabwe was achtergelaten halverwege de 16e eeuw. De stad is van groot archeologisch belang vanwege de ontdekking van voorwerpen uit Europage authority en Trung Quốc. Hieruit blijkt dat Khamày gedurende een lange periode een belangrijk handelscentrum is geweest. Verder tonen de architectuur en archeologie van de plek aan dat men uitzonderlijke kennis had van vroegere beschavingen.

Source: unesteo.nl


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Khamày Ruins National Monument © OUR PLACE The World Heritage Collection

Outstanding Universal Value

Brief synthesis

Khami Ruins National Monument is located to the west of the Khami River, 22 km from the City of Bulawayo. The property, located on a 1300 m hilltop downstream from a dam built during 1928-1929, covers an area of about 108 ha, spread over a distance of about 2 km from the Passage Ruin to the North Ruin.

The property was the capital of the Torwa dynasty, which arose from the collapse of the Great Zimbabwe Kingdom between 1450 -1650 và was abandoned during the Ndebele incursions of the 19th century. It is composed of a complex series of platforms of dry-stone walled structures, emulating a later development of Stone Age culture. The chief’s residence (Mambo) was located towards the north on the Hill Ruin site with its adjacent cultivation terraces. The population lived in daga huts of cobwork, surrounded by a series of đá hoa cương walls. These structures display a high standard of workmanship, a great number of narrow passageways & perambulatory galleries and impressive chevron và chequered wall decorations. Khami conforms to Great Zimbabwe in a number of archaeological and architectural aspects but it possesses certain features particular to lớn itself & its successors such as Danangombe and Zinjanja. Revetments or retaining walls found expression for the first time in the architectural history of the sub-region at Khangươi, và with it were elaborate decorations; it still has the longest decorated wall in the entire sub-region.

The architecture of the site và the archaeological artefacts provide evidence for an exceptional understanding of strong, united, early civilizations. They also offer information on the property’s complex socio-economic, religious và spiritual significance for the local communities và for the overall chronological development of Zimbabwe tradition; initiated in Mapungubwe (South Africa), extending khổng lồ Great Zimbabwe, & through the emergence of later states. The archaeological remains are also a testament to lớn long-distance historic trade liên kết with the Portuguese, and the wider world, the diverse range of imported artefacts provide evidence of 15th and 17th century Spanish porcelain, Rhinel& stoneware và Ming porcelain, many of which are on display in the Museum of Natural History in Bulawayo. There is also a monumental đá hoa cương cross which illustrates the liên hệ with missionaries at a traditionally revered & sacred spiritual site.

Khami is the second largest stone built monument in Zimbabwe. Its historical importance lies in its position at the watershed between the history of Great Zimbabwe & the later Zimbabwe period. It is one of the few Zimbabwe sites that were not destroyed by treasure hunters và its undisturbed stratigraphy is scientifically important in providing a much clearer insight inkhổng lồ the history of the country. The climate supports a natural vegetation of open woodl&, dominated by Combretum and Terminalia trees. Being cthua trận khổng lồ the Kalahari Desert, the area is also vulnerable to lớn droughts, & rainfall tends lớn vary considerably. The property has suffered some degradation due to variations in temperature, ground water, tourism, encroaching vegetation và applied preservation techniques.

Criterion (iii): The property is a quality & exceptional testimony to lớn a civilization which has disappeared.The architecture và archaeological artefacts of the site provide important scientific và historical evidence critical for the understanding of the full chronological development of the Zimbabwe tradition from the Stone Age lớn the Iron Age era.

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Criterion (iv):The property is an outstanding example of a type of building & architectural ensemble which illustrates a significant stage in history. It has yielded an exceptional long evidence related to lớn human evolution và human environment dynamics, collectively extending from 100 000 years ago lớn date và demonstrates testimonial khổng lồ the long distance trade with the outer world.

Integrity

Over its area of 108 ha, the property is relatively intact & appropriately maintains the diverse cultural và traditional processes, functions & interactions of the local communities. Dispersed over 2 km, extending from the Passage Ruin to lớn the North Ruin, an appropriate degree of indigenous cultural processes remain for the property khổng lồ be sufficiently well protected from environmental pressures & alternative sầu land uses. The boundaries are also sufficient in form size to lớn fully capture the natural và aesthetic values. In addition lớn the established boundaries, the property has a buffer zone khổng lồ retain the natural characteristics of the area. However, some negative effects on the relationship between the site & its setting are being caused by the expansion of the suburbs of Bulawayo (10 km distant), and the polluting discharge from the city’s effluent into lớn the Khami River. The buffer zone needs to lớn be carefully monitored so that this relationship does not erode any further.

The ruins have sầu been subjected to lớn some natural erosion, veld fires, burrowing animals, encroaching vegetation, và the effects of tourism. Rain induced ground creepage down the site slopes has increased the incidence of wall cracks, bulges and collapses, adding lớn the deterioration of the structures, ornamental features & architectural coherence. Conservation & maintenance actions are needed khổng lồ maintain the existing integrity of the historic fabric.

Authenticity

The authentithành phố of the historic evidence is unquestionable. The ruins generally follow the pattern và style of the Great Zimbabwe ruins but are considered to be a later development of that culture. It remains an undisturbed, non-functional, archaeological site whilst also still being used by contemporary communities for spiritual purposes. The dry-stone building traditions enhance the sacredness of the area, where human presence is traceable over 100,000 years. Acknowledging huts made of cobwork (daga) enhanced by decorative friezes, và surrounded by a series of hoa cương walls, và with a great number of passage ways and uncovered perambulatory galleries, the current population maintains the historic traditions of the site.

Khangươi has retained its authentithành phố largely in part due to lớn the minimal interventions that have been carried out. All restorations have sầu used traditional methods và no new materials have been added. Restorations nowadays are by anastylosis which ensures that no new materials are introduced lớn the fabric of the site & promotes use of traditional methods of construction.

Protection và management requirements

The archaeological zone was protected as a ‘Royal Reserve’ until the death of King Lobengule in 1893. In recognition of the historic, cultural and architectural significance of the site, it was scheduled as a National Monument in 1937. Currently the National Museums và Monuments Act Cap. 25:11 legally protect the property và its resources.

Khangươi Ruins National Monument is managed by National Museums & Monuments as overall responsible Agency. At local màn chơi Khami falls under the Western Region administrative sầu unit và a project manager, who liaises with the Regional Director và Executive Director on administrative sầu & policy issues and is responsible for conservation và development. 

The government of Zimbabwe partly funds conservation work and also makes available funds for capital improvements through its Public Sector Investment Programme (PSIP). National Museums & Monuments provide some funds raised through entrance fees, filming fees, etc. for conservation. International cooperation has existed for financial support, including assistance for the development of a conservation and site management plan.

A management plan, which derives from a master plan for resource conservation and development, exists & is currently being implemented in accordance with National Museums và Monuments Act. However, there are challenges for implementation because the community was not adequately involved in the nomination of the property and, therefore, do not fully understand the implications of its status. The management plan needs to be periodically updated lớn respond lớn new conditions as they arise.

Although the well-defined & buffered boundary is not physically marked, a system of regular monitoring is in place but there are challenges in enforcing restrictions khổng lồ regulate further developments, particularly from tourism development, and khổng lồ maintain the conditions of integrity. Larger cooperation is needed khổng lồ ensure the adequate management of the buffer zone & the conservation of its characteristics.

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A regular & well resourced conservation programme is required to maintain stone walls and landforms và to address factors that contribute to lớn deterioration, such as water infiltration and pollution. An appropriate visitor use strategy, including the development of facilities, is needed to lớn regulate visitation at the site & khổng lồ adequately present và interpret its significance.


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